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Between 50 and 100 million years ago, during the geological periods known as Cretaceous and Tertiary, the Atlantic Ocean covered much of Georgia south of an imaginary line drawn from Columbus to Augusta, which is where the Piedmont Plateau meets the coastal plain.

Above this line, known as the Fall Line, weathered crystalline rocks at the Piedmont Plateau began to break down and rushing streams carried the tiny feldspar and kaolinite crystals seaward to form large sedimentary deposits. During later periods, earth was piled on top of the kaolin; this overlying layer of earth contained sharks’ teeth, sand dollars and other marine life fossils and contributed to the alteration of the feldspar and kaolinite deposits. Sedimentary kaolin deposits were formed in middle Georgia as a result of the weathering and erosion of the Piedmont rock, enriching the lives of Georgians who reside along the Fall Line.


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